My Research Philosophy


I have completed my series on models for health education.  I want to focus more on something a bit more personal.  The big reason I started this blog is to get my research philosophy out there.   One of the things I want to do is to do more community-based diverse population research.  The primary topic is to see if the emergency preparedness and response messages are working their way to the hardest to reach people.

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The PEN-3 Model


In my final installment of models for health education I will talk about the PEN-3 model.  This model is not as well-known as some of the other models.  However, it has a very important use.  This model helps to identify specific cultural factors that are important to know to implement a health education program with diverse populations.  Dr. Collins Airhihenbuwa developed the PEN-3 model in 1990 (Airhihenbuwa, 1990).  The key thing to know about this model is that’s it’s meant for non-Western cultures.  It’s easier to implement a program in cultures closer to our own.  If the culture is vastly different, you first need to understand their motivations.

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The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is probably one of the most talked about in public health.  One of the reasons being that it’s a comprehensive model for developing public health education programs.  There are a lot of arrows showing the relationship between items within a phase and between phases.

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