Measuring outrage through a quantitative study of Iraqi immigrants in Michigan

Authors: Kerry Chamberlain, C.J. Schumaker & Madiha Tariq

Date: January 2017

Abstract: Objectives: To measure the outrage towards five top hazards in Michigan of Iraqi immigrants from Sterling Heights and Dearborn, Michigan to enhance communication efforts. Methods: We recruited 84 Iraqi immigrants from two ACCESS community health and research facilities for this study. We utilized the Risk = Hazard + Outrage equation to measure outrage and total risk. Outrage was measured through a new survey instrument based off a list of nine outrage factors per hazard. We also used ANOVA to compare the hazards with each other and hazard and outrage levels. Results: Snowstorms were measured to be the highest outrage and power outages measured the lowest. Total risk was highest for snowstorms and lowest for pandemic influenza. Conclusions: The results measured outrage for each of the five Michigan hazards, showing what hazards Iraqi immigrants were most worried about. Because snowstorms were measured to have the highest outrage and overall measured risk, emergency preparedness and response professionals need to spend more time educating this group about snowstorms and learn from this group on resilience during power outages.

A Concurrent Mixed Method Study Exploring Iraqi Immigrants’ Views of Michigan Hazards

Author: Kerry Chamberlain

Date: March 2016

Abstract: Failure of emergency response personnel to communicate effectively with different cultures can have dire consequences during an emergency, including loss of lives and litigation costs. For emergency response personnel to communicate the risk of an emergency, it is important to understand how different groups, especially newly arrived foreign immigrants, perceive warnings and related messages. This study addressed how one of the largest category of immigrants in Michigan perceived severe tornados, influenza pandemics, power outages, severe floods, and snowstorms. The research question examined the degree to which the equation, Risk = Hazard + Outrage, explained perceptions of these hazards in Michigan among newly arrived Iraqi immigrants. A concurrent mixed-method design was used. In-person interviews were conducted using quantitative and qualitative questions based on the equation and the PEN 3 model with 84 immigrants from Iraq who lived in the United States 4 years or less. Respondents’ levels of outrage and hazard were compared using ANOVA. The calculated levels were compared with the qualitative comments made during the interviews. Snowstorms measured the highest outrage, and power outages measured the least. The reported awareness level was lowest for snowstorms with the highest being power outages. More information needs to reach Iraqi immigrants regarding unfamiliar hazards. Communicators should use Iraqi immigrants’ experience with familiar hazards to identify effective ways of responding to this population. The results of this study may promote social change of more effective communication and saving lives in the future should an emergency occur in Michigan that affects Iraqi immigrants.


The Civil Air Patrol’s Role in Medical Countermeasure Distribution in Michigan

Authors: Jennifer Hankinson, Kerry Chamberlain, Susie Doctor, Mary Macqueen

Date: December 2011

Abstract: Michigan’s unique geological features and highly variable climatic conditions make distribution of medical countermeasures during a public health emergency situation very challenging. To enhance distribution during these situations, the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) has agreed to support the state of Michigan by transporting life-saving medical countermeasures to remote areas of the state. The Michigan Strategic National Stockpile (MISNS) program has successfully developed, exercised, and enhanced its partnership with the CAP to include distribution of federally provided Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) assets. The CAP has proven to be a reliable and valuable partner, as well as a cost-effective and time-efficient means of transporting vital resources during a public health emergency.